What Are The Means Of Information?

knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news: information concerning a crime. knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.; factual data: His wealth of general information is amazing. the act or fact of informing.

Definition of Information.

The term ‘Information, is difficult to define precisely although its properties and effects are observed in all walks of life. The usage of information has given it different namings. The dictionary meaning of this term ‘Knowledge’ ‘Intelligence’ ‘a facts’ ‘data’ ‘a message’ ‘a signal’ which is transmitted by the act or process of communication.

“Information is an assemblage of data in a comprehensible form capable of communication. This may range from content in any format – written or printed on paper, stored in electronic databases, collected on the Internet etc. -to the personal knowledge of the staff of an organization.” – Harrods Librarian’s Glossary and Reference Book.

“The data are potential information but when data are actually used they are called Information.” – Davis & Johnson.

Types of information.

Information has its varieties. David B.Hertz and Albert B.Rubenstein have identified six varieties of information. These are as:

Conceptual information.Empirical information.Procedural information.Stimulatory information.Stimulatory information.Policy information.Directive information.

1. Conceptual information: Information which is based on ideas, concepts, theories, hypothesis etc, and might be used in future or not. It does not always means the actual meaning. Such information do not have scientific foundation.

e.g. Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evaluation.

2. Empirical Information: The word empirical information denotes information acquired by means of observation or experimentation. This information have scientific foundation.

3. Procedural Information: The methodology which enables the investigators to operate more effectively. Procedural information relates to means by which the data of investigation are obtained, manipulated, and tested.

e.g. police officer > Inform to public > Reason of investigation > To find out actual criminal.

4. Stimulatory Information: Information which creates stimulation among the people are called to be the stimulatory information.

e.g. Victory day celebration.

5. Policy Information: This type of information focuses on the decision making process. It can be obtained from description, picture, diagram etc.

6. Descriptive information: Information which deals with providing direction is called directive information.

e.g. Mode of operation in any organization.